DNA Microarrays

Here are some interesting web sites and papers which will introduce you to one of the more exciting technological beakthroughs in genomics -- DNA microarrays. This site is far from a comprehensive listing, but it may be a good place to start. This page started in 1999 and now that I have a real job, its a little harder to keep it up to date. However, I'm going to give it the old 'college try'. If you know of any sites which belong here or have any additional information please let me know. - Andreas

The Genetic Science Learning Center has recently completed a very cool interactive online DNA microarray biotechniques lab here

Information on the Third International Meeting on Microarray Data Standards, Annotations, Ontologies and Databases

Stanford has some PowerPoint presentations from a recent meeting

Please check out:

The ABRF Microarray Survey at Cornell University.

Introductory Information:

The following links will give you a brief overview of DNA microarrays, they are mostly papers in the (somewhat) popular press:

An article at Cold Spring Harbor labs gives a nice overview

An article entitled "MicroArrays in the New Millenium, Part I" from Bioresearch online which is a brief review of the types of technologies used in making DNA chips.

Here's an article in The Scientist by Bob Sinclair which is a nice introduction to the technologies used in creating arrays and some of the commercial products available to analyze the data.

Another article in The Scientist which focuses on measuring expression.

A third article from The Scientist discusses using Mathcad to analyze microarray data.

Here's an article on the NIH Microarray User Group Mini-Symposium from biomednet.

This page is a homepage of a Stanford University Med Student involved with microarrays


Here's an article from The American Institute of Physics Bulletin of Physics News

Here's another article, this one explains how DNA is attached to the chips

Detailed information:

The following are mostly homepages of laboratories which have built succcessful MicroArrays:

The Brown lab at Stanford University has extensive information on expression array chip design and use. They even have a forum whre people who are trying to make their own microarrays can look for help.

The Functional Genomics site at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine has information on their printer and scanner

The National Human Genome Research Institute at NIH has their own Microarray Project

The Ward Lab at the University of Arizona uses microarrays for the analysis of C. elegans sperm gene expression.

The Leroy Hood lab at the University of Washington, Seattle

Paul T. Spellman's Home page

An Introduction to DNA Microarray Technology -- an online talk by Alan J. Robinson

Vivian Cheung's Lab at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Drosophila DNA Microarray Homepage at Stanford Medical

The Microarray Centre at the Ontario Cancer Institute.

DNA Microarray Services at Yale Med.

Gene Expression Technology Group at Wake Forest School of Medicine

The Center for Gene Expression Profiling at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University -- includes some protocols.

The Xenopus Microarray Team at The Rockefeller University

Software - Bioinformatics for DNA Microarrays:

As a computational biologist who enjoys sitting in front of the computer more than sitting in the lab, I am interested in seeing how people tackle the very difficult problem of analyzing the large amount of data that microarray experiments produce. Here are some groups that I know of who are tackling this problem:

DRAGON at Johns Hopkins

TIGR ArrayViewer from The Institute for Genomic Research

Michael Eisen's software at Stanford -- includes ScanAlyze, Cluster and TreeView.

Scanalytics' MicroArray Suite

LION Bioscience's arraySCOUT

NHGRI's ArrayViewer Java Applet

NHGRI's database design for microarray data

The GATC consortium


Imaging Research

Art Owen's Plaid model software at Stanford.

AMADA (Analyzing Microarray Data) from Dr. Xuhua Xia, University of Hong Kong

Statistical Methods and Analysis at the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Consortium

DNA Array Analysis Tools at the CNIO Bioinformatics Unit

Links and more links including listservs and newsgroups:

The following sites have links to other array information

WWW Virtual Library: (Botany) Plant-Arrays

The PlantArrays e-mail message archive at Stanford

Leming Shi's Gene-Chips.com

Genemachines' links page

Nanogen's links page

Dr. Bernd Weisshaar's links page at the Max-Planck-Institut für Züchtungsforschung in Köln, Germany

Large-Scale Gene Expression and Microarray Links and Resources by Alan Robinson

Information about the "Gene-Array" listserv

NIH's microarray project's list of links

This page has Japanese Links to microarray projects

Gene Chip Microarray Protocol Websites

The egroup for microarrays

Resources for microarray technology maintained by Ruth Alscher at Virginia Tech

biocompare.com - The Consumer Guide for the Life Scientist

Microarrays Horizon Press' page for microarrays.

Industrial information:

There are many efforts to make DNA microarrays by industry:

Monsanto's Arabidopsis EST Microarray-DNA Chip Plant Biology Research proposals

Affymetrix, Inc., Santa Clara, California

Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, California

Applied Precision, Inc., Issaquah, Washington

Axon Instruments, Inc. Foster City, California

Biochip Technologies Freiburg, Germany

BioDiscovery, Inc., Los Angeles, California

BioRobotics, Ltd., Cambridge, England

Biospace Mesures, Paris, France

Clinical Microsensors, Pasadena, California

Clontech, Palo Alto, California

Corning Microarray Technology, Corning, NY

DNAmicroarray.com, ???, California

Exiqon, Vedbaek, Denmark

Gene Logic, Inc., Columbia, Maryland

Gene Machines Menlo Park, California

General Scanning Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts

Genetic MicroSystems Inc., Woburn, Massachusetts

Genometrix Inc., The Woodlands, Texas

Genomic Solutions, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Genpak Ltd., Brighton, UK

Incyte Genomics, Inc. Palo Alto, California

Lab-on-a-Chip.com, Suffolk, UK

Molecular Dynamics, Inc., Sunnyvale, California

Nanogen San Diego, California

NEN Life Science Boston, MA

Packard Instrument Company Meriden, Connecticut

PHASE-1 Molecular Toxicology, Inc. Santa Fe, NM

Point Technologies, Inc. Boulder, CO

Radius Biosciences, Medfield, Massachusetts

Research Genetics, Huntsville, Alabama

SciMatrix, Durham, North Carolina


Silicon Genetics San Carlos, California

Super Array, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland

Synteni, Fremont, CA

TeleChem International, Inc. Sunnyvale, CA -- includes some protocols

V & P Scientific Inc. San Diego, California

Vysis Inc., Downers Grove, Ill.


Click here to do a PubMed search for "DNA Microarray"

This list is by no means complete, it is merely a selection of articles which I found interesting and informative re: DNA microarrays. However if you know of an article that isn't here, please Let me know:

Nature Genetics has a recent issue devoted to DNA Chips.

Beier M, et al. 2000. Production by quantitative photolithographic synthesis of individually quality checked DNA microarrays. Nucleic Acids Res. 28(4):E11

Bertucci, F., Bernard, K., Loriod, B., Chang, Y.-C., Granjeaud, S., Birnbaum, D., Nguyen, C., Peck, K., Jordan, B. R. 1999. Sensitivity issues in DNA array-based expression measurements and performance of nylon microarrays for small samples Hum Mol Genet 1999 8: p. 1715-1722

Bowtell DD. 1999. Options available--from start to finish--for obtaining expression data by microarray. Nat Genet 1999 Jan;21(1 Suppl):25-32

Brown, MP, et al. 2000. Knowledge-based analysis of microarray gene expression data by using support vector machines. PNAS 97(1):262-267.

Brown PO, Botstein D. 1999. Exploring the new world of the genome with DNA microarrays. Nat Genet 1999 Jan;21(1 Suppl):33-7

Mark Chee, Robert Yang, Earl Hubbell, Anthony Berno, Xiaohua C. Huang, David Stern, Jim Winkler, David J. Lockhart, Macdonald S. Morris, Stephen P. A. Fodor. 1996. Accessing Genetic Information with High-Density DNA Arrays.Science 274: 610-614.

Cheung VG, Morley M, Aguilar F, Massimi A, Kucherlapati R, Childs G. 1999. Making and reading microarrays. Nat Genet 1999 Jan;21(1 Suppl):15-9

Cheung VG, Gregg JP, Gogolin-Ewens KJ, Bandong J, Stanley CA, Baker L, Higgins MJ, Nowak NJ, Shows TB, Ewens WJ, Spielman RS. 1998. Linkage-disequilibrium mapping without genotyping. NATURE GENETICS 18: (3) 225-230 MAR 1998

Cheung VG, Nelson SF. 1998. Genomic mismatch scanning identifies human genomic DNA shared identical by descent. Genomics 1998 Jan 1;47(1):1-6

Claverie, J.-M. 1999. Computational methods for the identification of differential and coordinated gene expression. Hum Mol Genet 1999 8: p. 1821-1832.

Debouck C, Goodfellow PN. 1999. DNA microarrays in drug discovery and development. Nat Genet 1999 Jan;21(1 Suppl):48-50

DeRisi JL, Iyer VR. 1999. Genomics and array technology. Curr Opin Oncol 1999 Jan;11(1):76-9

DeRisi J, Penland L, Brown PO, Bittner ML, Meltzer PS, Ray M, Chen Y, Su YA, Trent JM. 1996. Use of a cDNA microarray to analyse gene expression patterns in human cancer. Nat Genet 1996 Dec;14(4):457-460

J. L. DeRisi, V. R. Iyer, P. O. Brown. 1997. Exploring the Metabolic and Genetic Control of Gene Expression on a Genomic Scale. Science 1997 October 24; 278 (5338):680

Desprez T, Amselem J, Caboche M, Hofte H. 1998. Differential gene expression in Arabidopsis monitored using cDNA arrays. PLANT JOURNAL 14: (5) 643-652 JUN 1998

Drobyshev A, Mologina N, Shik V, Pobedimskaya D, Yershov G, Mirzabekov A. 1997. Sequence analysis by hybridization with oligonucleotide microchip: identification of beta-thalassemia mutations. Gene 1997 Mar 25;188(1):45-52

Dubiley S, Kirillov E, Lysov Y, Mirzabekov A. 1997. Fractionation, phosphorylation and ligation on oligonucleotide microchips to enhance sequencing by hybridization. Nucleic Acids Res 1997 Jun 15;25(12):2259-2265

Duggan DJ, Bittner M, Chen Y, Meltzer P, Trent JM. 1999. Expression profiling using cDNA microarrays. Nat Genet 1999 Jan;21(1 Suppl):10-4

Eisen MB, Spellman, PT, Brown, PO and D Botstein. 1998. Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95(25):14863-14868

Favis, R., Day, JP, Gerry, NP, Phelan, C., Narod, S., and Barany, F. 2000. Universal DNA array detection of small insertions and deletions in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Nat Biotechnol May; 18(5):561-564.

Ferguson JA, Boles TC, Adams CP, Walt DR. 1996. A fiber-optic DNA biosensor microarray for the analysis of gene expression. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY 14: (13) 1681-1684 DEC 1996

Fodor, S. A. 1997. Massively Parallel Genomics. Science 277:393-395.

Forozan F, Karhu R, Kononen J, Kallioniemi A, Kallioniemi OP. 1997. Genome screening by comparative genomic hybridization. TRENDS IN GENETICS 13: (10) 405-409 OCT 1997

Gerry NP, et al. 1999. Universal DNA microarray method for multiplex detection of low abundance point mutations. J. Mol. Biol. 292(2):251-62

Ginot F. 1997. Oligonucleotide micro-arrays for identification of unknown mutations: how far from reality? Hum Mutat 1997;10(1):1-10

Golub, T. R., Slonim, D. K., Tamayo, P., Huard, C., Gassenbeek, M., Mesirov, J. P., Coller, H., Loh, M. L., Downing, J. R., Caligiuri, M. A., Bloomfield, C. D., and E. S. Lander. 1999. Molecular Classification of Cancer: Class Discovery and Class Prediction by Gene Expression Monitoring. Science 1999 286: 531-537.

Gunderson KL, Huang XC, Morris MS, Lipshutz RJ, Lockhart DJ, Chee MS. 1998. Mutation detection by ligation to complete n-mer DNA arrays. Genome Res 1998 Nov;8(11):1142-53

Guschin D, Yershov G, Zaslavsky A, Gemmell A, Shick V, Proudnikov D, Arenkov P, Mirzabekov A. 1997. Manual manufacturing of oligonucleotide, DNA, and protein microchips. Anal Biochem 1997 Aug 1;250(2):203-211

Hacia JG, Woski SA, Fidanza J, Edgemon K, Hunt N, McGall G, Fodor SP, Collins FS. 1998. Enhanced high density oligonucleotide array-based sequence analysis using modified nucleoside triphosphates. Nucleic Acids Res 1998 Nov 1;26(21):4975-82

Joseph G. Hacia, Bryan Sun, Nathaniel Hunt, Keith Edgemon, Deborah Mosbrook, Christiane Robbins, Stephen P.A. Fodor, Danilo A. Tagle, and Francis S. Collins. 1998. Strategies for Mutational Analysis of the Large Multiexon ATM Gene Using High-Density Oligonucleotide Arrays. Genome Res. 1998 December 1; 8(12): p. 1245-1258

Hacia JG. 1999. Resequencing and mutational analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays. Nat Genet 1999 Jan;21(1 Suppl):42-7

Hayward RE, et al. 2000. Shotgun DNA microarrays and stage-specific expression in plasmodium falciparum malaria. Mol Microbiol 35(1)6-14

Heller RA, Schena M, Chai A, Shalon D, Bedilion T, Gilmore J, Woolley DE, Davis RW. 1997. Discovery and analysis of inflammatory disease-related genes using cDNA microarrays. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997 Mar 18;94(6):2150-2155

Hoheisel JD. 1997. Oligomer-chip technology. TRENDS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY 15: (11) 465-469 NOV 1997

Johannes G, et al. 1999. Identification of eukaryotic mRNAs that are translated at reduced cap binding complex eIF4F concentrations using a cDNA microarray. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96(23):13118-23.

Johnston M. 1998. Gene chips: Array of hope for understanding gene regulation. CURRENT BIOLOGY 8: (5) R171-+ FEB 26 1998

Kal, A. J., van Zonneveld, A. J., Benes, V., van den Berg, M., Koerkamp, M. G., Albermann, K., Strack, N., Ruijter, J. M., Richter, A., Dujon, B., Ansorge, W., Tabak, H. F. 1999. Dynamics of Gene Expression Revealed by Comparison of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression Transcript Profiles from Yeast Grown on Two Different Carbon Sources. Mol. Biol. Cell. 10:1859-1872

Khan J, et al. 1999. cDNA microarrays detect activation of a myogenic transcription program by the PAX3-FKHR fusion oncogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96(23):13264-9

Khrapko KR, Lysov YuP, Khorlyn AA, Shick VV, Florentiev VL, Mirzabekov AD. 1989. An oligonucleotide hybridization approach to DNA sequencing. FEBS Lett 1989 Oct 9;256(1-2):118-122

Kononen J, Bubendorf L, Kallioniemi A, Barlund M, Schraml P, Leighton S, Torhorst J, Mihatsch MJ, Sauter G, Kallioniemi OP. 1998. Tissue microarrays for high-throughput molecular profiling of tumor specimens. Nat Med 1998 Jul;4(7):844-847

Kruglyak L, McAllister L. 1998. Who needs genetic markers? NATURE GENETICS18: (3) 200-202 MAR 1998

Lander ES. 1999. Array of hope. Nat Genet 1999 Jan;21(1 Suppl):3-4

Lashkari DA, DeRisi JL, McCusker JH, Namath AF, Gentile C, Hwang SY, Brown PO, Davis RW. 1997. Yeast microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 94: (24) 13057-13062 NOV 25 1997

Lee PS, Lee KH. 2000. Genomic analysis. Curr Opin Biotechnol Apr; 11(2):171-175

Lipshutz RJ, Fodor SP, Gingeras TR, Lockhart DJ. 1999. High density synthetic oligonucleotide arrays. Nat Genet 1999 Jan;21(1 Suppl):20-4

David J. Lockhart, Helin Dong, Michael C. Byrne1, Maximillian T. Follettie, Michael V. Gallo, Mark S. Chee, Michael Mittmann, Chunwei Wang, Michiko Kobayashi, Heidi Horton, and Eugene L. Brown. 1996. Expression monitoring by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays, NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY 14: (12) 1675-1680 DEC 1996

Marshall A, Hodgson J. 1998. DNA chips: an array of possibilities. Nat Biotechnol 1998 Jan;16(1):27-31

Matsumura H, et al. 1999. Technical Advance: Transcript profiling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Plant J. 20(6):719-726.

Lucito R, Nakimura M, West JA, Ying H, Chin K, Jensen K, McCombie R, Gray JW, Wigler M. 1998. Genetic analysis using genomic representations. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 95: (8) 4487-4492 APR 14 1998

Noble D. 1995. DNA sequencing on a chip. Anal Chem 1995 Mar 1;67(5):201A-204A

Pappalardo PA, Bonner R, Krizman DB, Emmert-Buck MR, Liotta LA. 1998. Microdissection, Microchip Arrays, and Molecular Analysis of Tumor Cells (Primary and Metastases). Semin Radiat Oncol 1998 Jul;8(3):217-223

Pennisi E. 1999. DNA chips give new view of classic test. Science 1999 Jan 1;283(5398):17-8

Proudnikov D, Timofeev E, Mirzabekov A. 1998. Immobilization of DNA in polyacrylamide gel for the manufacture of DNA and DNA-oligonucleotide microchips. ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY 259: (1) 34-41 MAY 15 1998

Radtkey, R., Feng, L., Muralhidar, M., Duhon, M., Canter, D., DiPerro, D., Fallon, S., Tu, E., McElfresh, K., Nerenber, M., and R. Sosnowski. 2000. Rapid high fidelity analysis of simple sequence repeats on an electronically active DNA microchip. Nucleic Acids Research Methods 28(7) April 1.

Ramsay G. 1998. DNA chips: State-of-the-art. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY 16: (1) 40-44 JAN 1998

Richmod T and S Somerville. 2000. Chasing the dream: plant EST microarrays. Curr Opin Plant Biol Apr;3(2):108-116.

Schena M. 1996. Genome analysis with gene expression microarrays. Bioessays 1996 May;18(5):427-31

Schena M, Shalon D, Heller R, Chai A, Brown PO, Davis RW. 1996. Parallel human genome analysis: Microarray-based expression monitoring of 1000 genes. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 93: (20) 10614-10619 OCT 1 1996

Schena M, Heller RA, Theriault TP, Konrad K, Lachenmeier E, Davis RW. 1998. Microarrays: biotechnology's discovery platform for functional genomics. Trends Biotechnol. Jul; 16(7):301-6

SCHENA M, SHALON D, DAVIS RW, BROWN PO. 1995. Quantitative Monitoring Of Gene-expression Patterns With A Complementary-DNA Microarray. SCIENCE 270: (5235) 467-470 OCT 20 1995

Schena M, Heller RA, Theriault TP, Konrad K, Lachenmeier E, Davis RW. 1998. Microarrays: biotechnology's discovery platform for functional genomics. Trends Biotechnol 1998 Jul;16(7):301-306

Schuchhardt, J., Beuele, D., Malik, A., Wolski, E., Eickhoff, H., Lehrach, H., and H. Herzel. 2000.

Service, Robert F. 1998. GENOMICS:DNA Chips Survey an Entire Genome Science 281: 1122.

Shalon D, Smith SJ, Brown PO. 1996. A DNA microarray system for analyzing complex DNA samples using two-color fluorescent probe hybridization. GENOME RESEARCH 6: (7) 639-645 JUL 1996

Shalon D. 1998. Gene Expression Micro-arrays: A new tool for genomic research. PATHOLOGIE BIOLOGIE 46: (2) 107-109 FEB 1998.

Shchepinov MS, Case-Green SC, Southern EM. 1997. Steric factors influencing hybridisation of nucleic acids to oligonucleotide arrays. Nucleic Acids Res 1997 Mar 15;25(6):1155-1161

Sniegowski, P. 1999. Evolutioin: The genomics of adaptation in yeast. Current Biology 9: R897-R898

Stimpson DI, Cooley PW, Knepper SM, Wallace DB. 1998. Parallel production of oligonucleotide arrays using membranes and reagent jet printing. Biotechniques 1998 Nov;25(5):886-90

Southern E, Mir K, Shchepinov M. 1999. Molecular interactions on microarrays. Nat Genet 1999 Jan;21(1 Suppl):5-9

Southern EM. 1995. DNA fingerprinting by hybridisation to oligonucleotide arrays. Electrophoresis 1995 Sep;16(9):1539-1542

Southern EM. 1996. DNA chips: analysing sequence by hybridization to oligonucleotides on a large scale. Trends Genet 1996 Mar;12(3):110-115

Sudarsanam P, Iyer VR, Brown PO, and F Winston. 2000. Whole-genome expression analysis of snf/swi mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA March 21: eprint-not yet published

Vahey, M. Nau, M. E., et al. 1999. Performance of the Affymetrix GeneChip HIV PRT 440 Platform for Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Genotyping of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Clades and Viral Isolates with Length Polymorphisms J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2533-2537

Vingron M, et al. 1999. Computational aspects of expression data. J Mol Med 77(1):3-7

D. G. Wang, J. Fan, C. Siao, A. Berno, P. Young, R. Sapolsky, G. Ghandour, N. Perkins, E. Winchester, J. Spencer, L. Kruglyak, L. Stein, L. Hsie, T. Topaloglou, E. Hubbell, E. Robinson, M. Mittmann, M. S. Morris, N. Shen, D. Kilburn, J. Rioux, C. Nusbaum, S. Rozen, T. J. Hudson, R. Lipshutz, M. Chee, E. S. Lander. 1998. Large-Scale Identification, Mapping, and Genotyping of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Human Genome.Science 1998 May 15; 280 (5366):1077 (in Reports).

Watts HJ, Yeung D, Parkes H. 1995. Real-time detection and quantification of DNA hybridization by an optical biosensor. Anal Chem 1995 Dec 1;67(23):4283-4289

Welford SM, Gregg J, Chen E, Garrison D, Sorensen PH, Denny CT, Nelson SF. 1998. Detection of differentially expressed genes in primary tumor tissues using representational differences analysis coupled to microarray hybridization. NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH 26: (12) 3059-3065 JUN 15 1998

White, KP et al. 1999. Microarray analysis of Drosophila development during metamorphosis.Science 286(5447)2179-84.

Elizabeth A. Winzeler, Dan R. Richards, Andrew R. Conway, Alan L. Goldstein, Sue Kalman, Michael J. McCullough, John H. McCusker, David A. Stevens, Lisa Wodicka, David J. Lockhart, Ronald W. Davis. 1998. Direct Allelic Variation Scanning of the Yeast Genome. Volume 281, Number 5380 Issue of 21 Aug 1998, pp. 1194 - 1197

Winzeler EA, Davis RW. 1997. Functional analysis of the yeast genome. CURRENT OPINION IN GENETICS & DEVELOPMENT 7: (6) 771-776 DEC 1997

Wodicka L, Dong HL, Mittmann M, Ho MH, Lockhart DJ. 1997. Genome-wide expression monitoring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY 15: (13) 1359-1367 DEC 1997

Yang, GP, ROss, DT, Kuang, WW, Brown, PO, and RJ Weigel. 1999. Combining SSH and cDNA microarrays for rapid identification of differentially expressed genes.Nucleic Acids Res 27(6): 1517-1523.

Yershov G, Barsky V, Belgovskiy A, Kirillov E, Kreindlin E, Ivanov I, Parinov S, Guschin D, Drobishev A, Dubiley S, Mirzabekov A. 1996. DNA analysis and diagnostics on oligonucleotide microchips. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996 May 14;93(10):4913-4918

Zanders, ED et al. 2000. Analysis of immune system gene expression in small rheumatoid arthritis biopsies using a combination of subtractive hybridization and high-density cDNA arrays. J Imminol Methods. 233(1-2):131-140.

You can search for more recent references here: ISI Citation Database

And PubMed is also an invaluable reference tool.

Affymetrix's list of publications.

There is some more information about bioinformatics at the main science section. And if you're curious, please feel free to check out deathstarinc

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(C) 1998-2005 Andreas Matern.

Last modified: February 22, 2005